Types of Rocks Found In Zambia: A Guide To The 6 Most Common You’ll Spot

There are a variety of rocks found in Zambia, a country in the south-central of Africa.

It boasts a wide range of stones that underpin the country’s economy.

Hence, Zambia is considered one of the few African countries endowed with different unique mineral resources.

Its geological terrains and the multiplicity of thermal and tectonic events are a reason why you should consider mining in this beautiful country.

You will collect multiple rocks, some of them still only available in Zambia.

Types of Rocks Found In Zambia (EXPLAINED)

How does the formation of rocks normally happen?

Rock happens as a result of extensive metamorphism and deformation.

For instance, most stones currently found in Zambia were transformed from older rocks, obscuring the geologic history of some of those minerals as well.

Here are some rocks/minerals found in Zambia that you should know. 


Feldspar is one of the minerals that serve as the basis for naming most of the rocks.

It occurs in pegmatites, which you can find within the granitic gneiss and schist of the basement.

Feldspars are generally white; they also have an orange or buff shade.

They usually have a glassy look that will attract you from a distance.

Where to find it? 

  • It is available extensively within the basement of Central Province, which includes places like Serenje, Mkushi, and Mita Hills areas.
  • Other places where you can find feldspar include Shiwa N-gandu in the northern part of Zambia and the Mazabuka and Siavonga provinces in the Southern region. In contrast, feldspar found in the Central Provinces developed into a glass. You can process several other feldspars into a glass material and a variety of other ceramic products. 
  • When you travel 10 km north of Siavonga, you will find pink alkali feldspar usually used for ceramic products. 
  • There are also white K-feldspar with an astounding 86% quality and chemical composition suitable for use as a ceramic.

How to collect it? 

You can use the conventional open-pit mining methods to collect it, including drilling and blasting.


Phosphate is another precious rock found in Zambia.

It is a finite resource that looks like graphite, and Zambia offers plenty of it.

You can process it to produce phosphorus, which some manufacturers use for making fertilizers.

You can also turn phosphate into phosphoric acid; a chemical normally used to process food, cosmetics, animal feed, and electronics.

This rock was formed millions of years ago by an organic matter on the ocean floor.

Where to find it? 

There are currently five regions where you can find phosphate in Zambia. 

  • You can find phosphate in the Nkombwa Hill region, 25km to the east of Isoka in the northern part of Zambia.
  • You can find other phosphate deposits in provinces like Chasweta, Mwambuto, Nachomba, and Kaluwe Hill in the Luangwa-Rufunsa area.
  • You can find more phosphate rocks, in Chilembwe, near Petauke in the Eastern part of the region. 
  • What’s more, you can use most phosphate found in the Nkombwa Hill for various products, including construction and agricultural products. 


You can spot kaolin with its whitish or yellowish hue, and Kaolin’s white color makes it easy to distinguish.

Another factor that sets this rock apart is its ability to disperse in water to transform it into an ideal pigment.

The kaolin rock comes from a hydrous aluminum silicate that originates by decomposing minerals such as feldspar.

Kaolin powder has health benefits, too.

For instance, some people can use it to relieve chronic indigestion.

It is also a natural cleanser; some people use kaolin clay to remove impurities from their skin.

Other people use it as a teeth whitener as well. 

Where to find it? 

You can find kaolin in one of the following regions:

  • You can spot Kaolin rock in Chilulwe, the Central Province, 40km to the southeast of Serenje.
  • You can find other kaolin reserves in the Central Province in secluded areas like Chibolele, Lukusashi, Kasanka, Chalata, Chibote, and Kapiri Mposhi
  • You are likely to be in Twapia near Ndola.


There is gypsum rock that you can find in different parts of Zambia.

You will spot it with its white color, but other substances may also give it other colors. 

It is a naturally occurring mineral found in layers of sedimentary rock in this African country.

Zambia’s gypsum occurs as a result of evaporation and replenishment of waters containing calcium. 

You can use gypsum as an ingredient for everyday products like toothpaste and shampoo.

Other manufacturers use it to produce cement, molds for dinnerware, dental impressions, roads, and highways.

See also: Can Gypsum Scratch Glass?

Where to find it?  

  • You can find gypsum in the Kafue Flats of Lochinvar National Park in Southern Province.
  • Another place where you can discover gypsum rock is the Chifungwe in the Northern Province.


Fluorite is usually blue-violet.

Some specimens are known to glow a cream or white color, and many specimens do not fluoresce. 

This crucial industrial rock is available in some parts of Zambia.

Fluorite rocks happen as a gangue mineral associated with metallic ores, and you can find it in the fractures and cavities of some limestones and dolomites.

You can use it for processing a variety of chemical, metallurgical, ornaments, and ceramic products.

Where to find it? 

  • You can find fluorite in the Southern Province of Zambia, mostly hydrothermal traces and replacement deposits originating in sedimentary sequences. 
  • Gwembe District is another area where you can find what has come to be known as “Sianyolo fluorite.” 
  • Siavonga district is another region boosting more fluorite resources. There is an estimation of 500,000 tonnes of fluorite in this part of Zambia.


There is also emerald rock in Zambia.

When it comes to price, most people consider diamonds, but emeralds are currently the most expensive gems.

They are also the softest gems that you can find in Zambia.

An emerald is usually hexagonal, and it is available in various shades of green.

 Where to find it? 

  • There are deposits of emerald in the Kitwe district in north-central Zambia, near the Kafubu River in the Ndola Rural.
  • You will also find emerald operations in the Chantete, Kamakanga, and Kagem regions. 
  •  Other Kafubu areas where you can find emeralds include the Twampane, Akala, Pirala, Miku, Ebenezer, and Mitondo mines.  
  • There is also emerald within rocks of the Muva Supergroup. This area forms the youngest part of the pre-Katangan basement, which is located southwest of the Copperbelt of Zambia. 

How to collect?

You can use pickaxes or other machines made from iron to mine it. 

Wrap Up

The Zambian state has adopted a policy that makes it easy for companies individuals to mine.

The policy promotes the exploration and exploitation of various rocks. 

Interested in rockhounding and travel?

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We also have a growing library of articles for folks you want to learn more about how to collect rocks on international trips.

types of rocks found in zambia